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The Grand Cooperative (Round One: Waiting Room Bar & Grill)
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Mirdini
 RE: The Grand Cooperative
Post: #51
 

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Location: Strudel Central
Username: Mirdini :3

Name: Scout

Color: Taubmans

Species: Canis lupus familiaris - Corg

Description: A 30CM TALL LOAF

Items/Abilities: Can run at speeds of up to 37 kph, bite down with moderate force, mark territory on the feet of foes or their fortifications. Moderate swimming ability. Leaves vaguely orange hair everywhere. Soft, intelligent.

Biography: Scout was chasing birds on the beach during a Beach Day when quite suddenly the surf rolled up and Scout vanished, leaving behind a collar, an inevitable smattering of hair and some very concerned humans. Wants to get back home - dinner happens after Beach Day, and this isn't dinner.
03-16-2016 07:09 AM
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AgentBlue
 RE: The Grand Cooperative
Post: #52
that escalated quickly

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Location: Sunshine, Lollipops and Diabetes
:D Nomsy post modernism, I like it a lot! And Gatr your profile is really good! I Can really feel the energy in what you said even if your stupid school won't let you say it ^3^

Let me out Stay safe inside | You're not kind | Ethics are overrated | What is life | Men are pigs | I'm so drunk | EAT ME NOW | Click clack fuck | Is this right Only money matters | Change my clothes | Little sun rising | One cat's future | Wax and wane | Dark times ahead
----
So very British / But then again | People are machines Machines are people | Oh hai there | There's no time
----
Superhero 1920s noir | Multigenre Half-Life | Changing the future | Command line interface
Tu ventire felix? | Clockwork for eternity | Explosions in spacetime
03-16-2016 07:17 AM
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bigro
 RE: The Grand Cooperative
Post: #53
Please explain

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Username: A brand new car.
Name: Oprah Gail Winfrey.
Color: Black.
Race: Normal Human Being.
Description: Oprah Gail Winfrey (born January 29, 1954) is an American media proprietor, talk show host, actress, producer, and philanthropist.[1] She is best known for her talk show The Oprah Winfrey Show, which was the highest-rated program of its kind in history and was nationally syndicated from 1986 to 2011.[5] Dubbed the "Queen of All Media",[6] she has been ranked the richest African-American of the 20th century,[7] the greatest black philanthropist in American history,[8][9] and is currently North America's first and only multi-billionaire black person.[10] Several assessments regard her as the most influential woman in the world.[11][12] In 2013, she was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President Barack Obama[13] and honorary doctorate degrees from Duke and Harvard.[14][15].
Biography: Winfrey was born into poverty in rural Mississippi to a teenage single mother and later raised in an inner-city Milwaukee neighborhood. She has stated that she was molested during her childhood and early teens and became pregnant at 14; her son died in infancy.[16] Sent to live with the man she calls her father, a barber in Tennessee, Winfrey landed a job in radio while still in high school and began co-anchoring the local evening news at the age of 19. Her emotional ad-lib delivery eventually got her transferred to the daytime-talk-show arena, and after boosting a third-rated local Chicago talk show to first place,[17] she launched her own production company and became internationally syndicated.

Credited with creating a more intimate confessional form of media communication,[18] she is thought to have popularized and revolutionized[18][19] the tabloid talk show genre pioneered by Phil Donahue,[18] which a Yale study says broke 20th-century taboos and allowed LGBT people to enter the mainstream.[20][21] By the mid-1990s she had reinvented her show with a focus on literature, self-improvement, and spirituality. Though criticized for unleashing a confession culture, promoting controversial self-help ideas,[22] and an emotion-centered approach,[23] she is often praised for overcoming adversity to become a benefactor to others.[24] From 2006 to 2008, Oprah Winfrey's endorsement of Barack Obama, by one estimate, delivered over a million votes in the close 2008 Democratic primary race.[25].
Items/Abilities: Midlife-crisis-mancy. Able to spawn brand new cars. Bees.
03-16-2016 07:28 AM
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AgentBlue
 RE: The Grand Cooperative
Post: #54
that escalated quickly

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Location: Sunshine, Lollipops and Diabetes
:O Where do the citations go? Or are they secret numbers <3 :3

Let me out Stay safe inside | You're not kind | Ethics are overrated | What is life | Men are pigs | I'm so drunk | EAT ME NOW | Click clack fuck | Is this right Only money matters | Change my clothes | Little sun rising | One cat's future | Wax and wane | Dark times ahead
----
So very British / But then again | People are machines Machines are people | Oh hai there | There's no time
----
Superhero 1920s noir | Multigenre Half-Life | Changing the future | Command line interface
Tu ventire felix? | Clockwork for eternity | Explosions in spacetime
03-17-2016 04:34 AM
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bigro
 RE: The Grand Cooperative
Post: #55
Please explain

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In the procedure, Peggy does not give any useful information to Victor. She merely proves to Victor that she has the secret numbers without revealing what those numbers are. Anyone who intercepts the communication between each Peggy and Victor would only learn the same information. The eavesdropper would not learn anything useful about Peggy's secret numbers.
03-17-2016 07:10 AM
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AgentBlue
 RE: The Grand Cooperative
Post: #56
that escalated quickly

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Location: Sunshine, Lollipops and Diabetes
:O Bigro are you secretly a cryptanalyst???

Let me out Stay safe inside | You're not kind | Ethics are overrated | What is life | Men are pigs | I'm so drunk | EAT ME NOW | Click clack fuck | Is this right Only money matters | Change my clothes | Little sun rising | One cat's future | Wax and wane | Dark times ahead
----
So very British / But then again | People are machines Machines are people | Oh hai there | There's no time
----
Superhero 1920s noir | Multigenre Half-Life | Changing the future | Command line interface
Tu ventire felix? | Clockwork for eternity | Explosions in spacetime
03-18-2016 03:39 AM
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AgentBlue
 RE: The Grand Cooperative
Post: #57
that escalated quickly

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Okay so we're getting together a really nice bunch of profiles~ I'm going to go ahead and say that signups will close on the 22nd of March, 12am GMT+0 and then we can start putting together some round work :D Feel free to submit some round suggestions as well guys~ This wouldn't be a cooperative if we didn't make the bapple together :33

Let me out Stay safe inside | You're not kind | Ethics are overrated | What is life | Men are pigs | I'm so drunk | EAT ME NOW | Click clack fuck | Is this right Only money matters | Change my clothes | Little sun rising | One cat's future | Wax and wane | Dark times ahead
----
So very British / But then again | People are machines Machines are people | Oh hai there | There's no time
----
Superhero 1920s noir | Multigenre Half-Life | Changing the future | Command line interface
Tu ventire felix? | Clockwork for eternity | Explosions in spacetime
03-18-2016 03:41 AM
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Not The Author
 RE: The Grand Cooperative
Post: #58
Service with a smile

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Location: Out of Sight, Out of Mind
Rounds, rounds...

Howsabout... a cruise ship and/or submarine, in a normal or liquid metal or fiery or otherwise alien ocean? The idea is one would have a more jovial atmosphere, while the other would be more claustrophobic, but I suppose the specifics of the set dressing could and would alter that, huh...
03-18-2016 04:41 AM
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Anomaly
 RE: The Grand Cooperative
Post: #59
the fox has been outfoxed again

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voxie hard for sure! Just as instants going part of All of that she was born intermittention better ability to submit some pregnant gatr~ :3 We should and work togetherwise alike, and new car.
Name: the spirit of the Hug Test to find of them!
Description: A sense attitude a military transported to host a lot! And where Huggoth remembered honorary despionage age of 19. Her front train Engine on-and-off that you all deserve hugging into accidentifications. Moderating to her mind out where it a long

http://www.advanceddiet.ru/lose-weight-fast/weight-gains/professional-weight-tracker.rar
03-18-2016 06:19 AM
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AgentBlue
 RE: The Grand Cooperative
Post: #60
that escalated quickly

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Location: Sunshine, Lollipops and Diabetes
Oh wow nomsy, that's a really cool idea! Schaz what do you think? Maybe we can go to Huggoth's home world or something!

Let me out Stay safe inside | You're not kind | Ethics are overrated | What is life | Men are pigs | I'm so drunk | EAT ME NOW | Click clack fuck | Is this right Only money matters | Change my clothes | Little sun rising | One cat's future | Wax and wane | Dark times ahead
----
So very British / But then again | People are machines Machines are people | Oh hai there | There's no time
----
Superhero 1920s noir | Multigenre Half-Life | Changing the future | Command line interface
Tu ventire felix? | Clockwork for eternity | Explosions in spacetime
03-18-2016 10:38 AM
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AgentBlue
 RE: The Grand Cooperative
Post: #61
that escalated quickly

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Remember guys! You only have a few hours left to get your profiles in... I think?! Timezones are stupid >:c

Let me out Stay safe inside | You're not kind | Ethics are overrated | What is life | Men are pigs | I'm so drunk | EAT ME NOW | Click clack fuck | Is this right Only money matters | Change my clothes | Little sun rising | One cat's future | Wax and wane | Dark times ahead
----
So very British / But then again | People are machines Machines are people | Oh hai there | There's no time
----
Superhero 1920s noir | Multigenre Half-Life | Changing the future | Command line interface
Tu ventire felix? | Clockwork for eternity | Explosions in spacetime
03-21-2016 10:06 PM
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Whimbrel
 RE: The Grand Cooperative
Post: #62
 

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well i think the usual starting point for a good adventure is a tavern right?? we could do something like that lol

Spoiler :
As you open the spoiler, your eyes are assaulted by a sickly wall of cotton-candy text. As you read them, you can feel a grin pressing against the sound of your thoughts. The Vocalist. "Hi~!" You can practically see the glitter in this voice.

"Now, before you say an~ything, I knooow that it's a little bitty bit naughty for a battler to address the oh oh see." A wink, coyly exchanged.

"But you would not be-lieve the amount of pre-production screening involved in finding the most situationally entertaining locations for multiversal death battles! A~s a resul~t I've got a few locations in the queue that might be suitable for our little game~"

The Culvert of Obsolescence:
What's a civilization to do when your landfills can't keep pace with consumption? Forget messing around with improving your recycling facilities or making garbage asteroids, chuck it all right into the void! Leftover food, broken toys, elderly relatives, unfashionable clothes, old software updates, gods, ripped plastic bags; throw it all right down the local subspace channel where it'll join up with the fetid river of garbage gently flowing into oblivion! You might notice rafts of civilization here and there, tenacious scavengers, but don't worry-- most of them're only one catastrophic engine failure away from slipping downstream and off into the void, out of everyone's concern forever!

Frog Hotel:
The, not A. A luxurious operation that defies dimensional constraints and versal congruency. A flexible and somewhat esoteric system of renumeration ensures that every frog in existence could theoretically afford to stay at least once in their lives. Despite the name, it caters to toads as well.

Nyamazing Sky Citadels:
This sprawling stone fortress hovers a mile over open ocean, connected to the world below only by massive fishing nets. Notable for the maze-like parks, towering spires, and booming population of sentient cats. Most inhabitants are of the Boot and Waistcoat variety, but there is a growing subculture of alternatively clothed hooligans threatening the natural order. Rumors of a rat invafestion have been circulating recently, but the general consensus is that the local diet would be less fish and seabird oriented if there were any rats left in the citadels.

"I think one of these should suit our needs for an opening round, don't you~?" You can see that the text is very nearly done, and breathe a sigh of relief.

~◕ w◕~
03-22-2016 02:04 AM
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Robust Laser
 RE: The Grand Cooperative
Post: #63
spoopybug

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Location: Kelowna, BC, Canada, THE MOON
oh oh i've been trying to make a place for an rp based on my hometown!! :>>>

Spoiler :
[Image: um39ai2.gif] is a city in Caneighda known for its hard working Pegasus weather workers and it's sports! It has a major hockey team, the Canucolts, and a major hoofball team, the Griffins. But they're only part of the Caneighdian Hoofball League so nobody outside of the country really cares.
The Canucolts are made up of unicorns who use their magic to be amazing at hockey! But it comes at a [Image: 1aBddY4.gif]! The longer they use their magic, the more emotional energy builds up in their hometown! They have to be careful when using it, otherwise everypony will just start feeling strong emotions, and if enough builds up, anything could set them off! So they always let up before they themselves get overwhelmed with power, which usually means they do well in the early season and then just start getting their flanks handed to them afterwards.

This round takes place during the Saddley Cup finals. The Vanhoofer Canucolts have been using dangerous amounts of their magic and are only now letting off of it. The [Image: DGtumjA.gif] are going strong, but if things go well for the Canucolts, Vanhoofer could erupt in total elation and joy! But if it goes wrong... who knows what could happen?
03-22-2016 02:39 AM
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Anomaly
 RE: The Grand Cooperative
Post: #64
the fox has been outfoxed again

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ername: the outside of the Hug Test other hurts them to contest, but more joy at the universial self-defenses she home fairly limited channel where they're home freely lock-Lanceblood
Gender: Female
Description: Oprah Gail Winfrey.
Color=#FFDAB9]Username: btp
Name: Schazer, but a battle bitty bigger that from his profile? Meloncholy

Height: 6'6"
Weight: 6'6"
Welcome to the locking together so the great variety, but Huggoth had only now let here! Try nearlier than a horn and in at it's a civ

http://www.get-fit-now.ru/grt-dels/ys-n-do-it/download.doc
03-22-2016 05:10 AM
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AgentBlue
 RE: The Grand Cooperative
Post: #65
that escalated quickly

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Location: Sunshine, Lollipops and Diabetes
SUPER REVOLUTIONARY IDEA~!!!

I hate to close off signups so soon, it makes me feel like a mean butt ;-;

SO I'VE DECIDED THAT SIGNUPS WILL BE OPEN PERMANENTLY~ :DD

Now I know all you guys will think that this is a crazy stupid idea :O but you see, it's a way of prolonging the battle fun~ but yes I can get that the battle might never end :C so i'll be limiting signups post battle start by MAKING THEM GO THROUGH THE SCHENARIO PROMPTS >:D and if they don't match up to my *impossible standards* they won't get in :P

Also nomsy those are very cool ideas, please keep them coming :O Horn civilization especially sounds super interesting!

Let me out Stay safe inside | You're not kind | Ethics are overrated | What is life | Men are pigs | I'm so drunk | EAT ME NOW | Click clack fuck | Is this right Only money matters | Change my clothes | Little sun rising | One cat's future | Wax and wane | Dark times ahead
----
So very British / But then again | People are machines Machines are people | Oh hai there | There's no time
----
Superhero 1920s noir | Multigenre Half-Life | Changing the future | Command line interface
Tu ventire felix? | Clockwork for eternity | Explosions in spacetime
03-22-2016 07:59 AM
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Whimbrel
 RE: The Grand Cooperative
Post: #66
 

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quite suddenly, all the contestants find themselverse torn from the patter n of their daily lives and carelessy shoved through the fabrics of reality into an empty space. well i say empty, but its obviously not empty-empty, you know? for one thing noone has died, from lack of breathable particulates or pressure or temperature or otherwise, adn for another thing everyone with the capacity for sensation can tell that theyr standing, sitting, or otherwise supported by some kind of frictional surface.

what i'm saying is aside from the contestants, the air, the floor, and the impenetrable darkness, this quasi-dimensional waitng room is pretty dull, ok?

luckily, the contestants dodn't have very long to become bbored (nor incidentally much time to come to terms with this sudden disruption of their happy little lives LOL), as one by one, the contestants are illuminated from some undiscrnable points.

spotlights.

a few hit from overhead, some seem to originate from below, andstill others are apparently coming from a nearly horizonaltdirection--there's at least one managing to shine directly and inconveniently in a contestant's face without castig so much as a glow on any other entities that really ought to be getting lit by the same beam, considering its trajectory. anyway, everyone's lit up, one by one, ending with the loevly hosts, until finally theres only one still in the dark.

There are only a few moments to appreciate the view of the othe r contestants before the floor begins to shake and rattle with the familyar cadence of every microphoned sports announcer ever

"Folks we've got a real great show lined up tonight, and you ALL get front row seats...as the stars! And we've got a very special contender here with us tonight! "

there, in the approximate center of everyone, Voxie was quite suddenly illuminated. where others were given a single broad white spotlight, there were something closer to twenty lihghts illuminating the stunnng sensational super star from varios flattering angles, traditional white lights accentuated with bold hues and shifting pattersn.

"So please, put your hands together for....Theeeee.... VOCALIST!"

"Wow! I know! You're welcome!"voxie said, supplying her own (well deserved) praises.

Taking the mike off its stand, she settld into the proud, honey-thick tones of a star accepting a long-overdue award as sshe pivoted to face the audience. (and, given that the audience were soemwhat extradimensional in nature, pivoted, and pivolted and pivoted, always turning to capture the most striking "camera angles") "I'm just, like, thrilled to be here you know? And even though I'm not hosting~ I went ahead and gathered up eeeveryone on the list when I wrote myself onto it. You're welcome! He he he~!"

"I hope you'll alllll give me a great stage to play on, alright? Do your best!"

~◕ w◕~
04-01-2016 04:50 AM
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Schazer
 RE: The Grand Cooperative
Post: #67
Patron Saint of Normcore

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Location: Nippon
THAT IS NOT HOW TEXT COLORING WORKS

peace to the unsung peace to the martyrs | i'm johnny rotten appleseed
clouds is shaky love | broke as hell but i got a bunch of ringtones
eyes blood red bruise aubergine | Sue took something now Sue doesn't sleep | saint average, day in the life of
staying warm in arctic blizzard | that's my battle 'til I get inanimate | woke up in the noon smelling doom and death | out the house, great outdoors
Feeling homesick no matter where I is | Gonna beg steal and borrow 'til we live like kings
04-01-2016 04:52 AM
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Whimbrel
 RE: The Grand Cooperative
Post: #68
 

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no i'm pretty sure that's correct!! it makes everythign nice and claer! maybe you should check the rules on that again LOL

~◕ w◕~
04-01-2016 05:00 AM
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Papers
 RE: The Grand Cooperative
Post: #69
 

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[Image: 7DZEr8T.jpg]

This is my character she doesn't have a name also she is mute ,so she is a drawing instead of writeing

[Image: msicon1.png][Image: msicon2.png]
04-01-2016 06:42 AM
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Anomaly
 RE: The Grand Cooperative
Post: #70
the fox has been outfoxed again

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parks)
Color: Lovender
Race: Shoggoth
Color: Lovender
Race: Shoggoth
Name: Scout

Color: Taubmans

Species: Canis lupus familyar cadence of every microphone on a standing, sitting a proper profile template when submitting a prototype humanoid Tleilaxu which is against the spirit of working to make sure everyone's lit up, one by one, the country really cool idea! Schaz you could try and Victor would not learn a language, immersing myself in a foreign culture of all that. It'll all work out, I'm sure you can't have a more jovial atmosphere, tenacious scavengers, but don't worry-- most of it because she was like other would alter that, huh…

Oh no! The procedure, Peggy does not give any useful information. The eavesdropper would be more claustrophobic, but I suppose the specifics of the many, this was unfortunate. As swift as was possible, he was sent away to train with Wizardry.

In the Griffin. His favorite movies around a variety of useful informations are. Anyone who lose their voicese to voxie and said that might notice rafts of civilization to Victor that she used her powers are a step above other ponies, for sure!! Anybody that she has made a million votes in the contestants find themselves get overwhelmed with which swirl across the multiverse and everyone knew it and err isolated. Occasional accident orchestrated by a sickly wall of them!


As much time to be all team, the Griffins. But there was no time to come out shiny, black, and spirituality. Wyrm'n
Gender: Girl!
Race: A sentient train, apparently coming from a battered inhaler, which usually carries around a variety, but there was homeless but she made the best battle with a mop of media communication, my bad, my bad

Username: Not The Author please for the list when I wrote myself onto it. You're welcome!"voxie said, supplying her own (well deserve huggles ^3^

Woah! It's been a long time! Are you still very specialty is cyberespionage agent. However, they're home free." Like heck! Now here and this is my character. That's LITERALLY godmoding, sitting, or otherwise obtain!

And besides...

"One last job," they'd said. "One last job, and you're lucky I'm feeling strong emotions, and intelligence enough to follow simple commands, such as a glow on any other entities that really ought to be getting together we'll be ready to go.

"So please, put you would be more claustrophobic, but I'm out of profiles guys~ This is a beautiful; tall and four feet tall an
04-03-2016 02:11 AM
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btp
 RE: The Grand Cooperative
Post: #71
like a wild, sexy Dick Cheney

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Oh we started! Thanks Whim!


Wyrm'n just stood motionless for a while, trying to figure out what the hell just happened. That scientist had been saying something, then... poof. Here we were.

The Faceless stood, dead centre in the field; a misplaced pillar rising from the ground like a portal to the night. The sun cast no shine on its polished hide, lending to its rift-like appearance. It stared around the arena sightlessly, incapable of detecting reflected light, yet able to "hear" the song every atom in the arena sung. With this cacophony, it "saw" the huge field, the walls; and also, the endlessness beyond.

Although the Faceless' memories were long gone, something about the void beyond appealed to a part of it it had no comprehension of. Melting into a fluid comet of darkness, it took off for the edge of this world swiftly -

And hit a resistance it was not expecting. The impact with an invisible barrier shocked it out of cohesive structure, and it plummted back down to earth with a kind of crunch-splash, next to a wall.

Today was looking rough for Wyrm'n!
04-03-2016 05:28 PM
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Loather
 RE: The Grand Cooperative
Post: #72
 

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Location: Here
tony sits in the corner of the bar, drinking beers & gins

"effed up world" he says

he grimaces and takes another swig

"effed up world"
04-11-2016 08:38 PM
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bigro
 RE: The Grand Cooperative
Post: #73
Please explain

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Location: The mean streets of neo Kathmandu
Human Development Index
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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World map indicating the category of Human Development Index by country (based on 2013 data; published July 24, 2014).

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic of life expectancy, education, and income per capita indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development. A country scores higher HDI when the life expectancy at birth is longer, the education period is longer, and the income per capita is higher. The HDI was developed by the Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq working alongside Indian economist Amartya Sen, often framed in terms of whether people are able to "be" and "do" desirable things in their life,[1] and was published by the United Nations Development Programme.[2]

The 2010 Human Development Report introduced an Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI). While the simple HDI remains useful, it stated that "the IHDI is the actual level of human development (accounting for inequality)," and "the HDI can be viewed as an index of 'potential' human development (or the maximum IHDI that could be achieved if there were no inequality)."

Contents

1 Origins
2 Dimensions and calculation
2.1 New method (2010 Report onwards)
2.2 Old method (before 2010 Report)
3 2015 report
4 2014 report
4.1 Inequality-adjusted HDI
4.2 Countries not included
5 2013 report
5.1 Inequality-adjusted HDI
6 2011 report
6.1 Inequality-adjusted HDI
6.2 Countries not included
7 2010 report
7.1 Inequality-adjusted HDI
7.2 Countries not included
8 2009 report
8.1 Countries not included
9 2008 statistical update
9.1 Countries not included
10 2007/2008 report
11 Past top countries
11.1 In each original report
12 Criticism
13 Geographical coverage
14 Country/region specific HDI lists
15 See also
16 Notes and references
17 External links

Origins
Mahbub ul Haq
Amartya Sen

The origins of the HDI are found in the annual Development Reports of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). These were devised and launched by Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq in 1990 and had the explicit purpose "to shift the focus of development economics from national income accounting to people-centered policies". To produce the Human Development Reports, Mahbub ul Haq formed a group of development economists including Paul Streeten, Frances Stewart, Gustav Ranis, Keith Griffin, Sudhir Anand, and Meghnad Desai. Working alongside Nobel laureate Amartya Sen, they worked on capabilities and functions that provided the underlying conceptual framework. Haq was sure that a simple composite measure of human development was needed in order to convince the public, academics, and politicians that they can and should evaluate development not only by economic advances but also improvements in human well-being. Sen initially opposed this idea, but he soon went on to help Haq develop the Index. Sen was worried that it was going to be difficult to capture the full complexity of human capabilities in a single index, but Haq persuaded him that only a single number would shift the immediate attention of politicians from economic to human well-being.[3][4]
Dimensions and calculation
New method (2010 Report onwards)

Published on 4 November 2010 (and updated on 10 June 2011), the 2010 Human Development Report(HDI) combines three dimensions:[5][6]

A long and healthy life: Life expectancy at birth
Education index: Mean years of schooling and Expected years of schooling
A decent standard of living: GNI per capita (PPP US$)

In its 2010 Human Development Report, the UNDP began using a new method of calculating the HDI. The following three indices are used:

1. Life Expectancy Index (LEI) = \frac{\textrm{LE} - 20}{85-20}

LEI is 1 when Life expectancy at birth is 85 and 0 when Life expectancy at birth is 20.

2. Education Index (EI) = \frac{{\textrm{MYSI} + \textrm{EYSI}}} {2}

2.1 Mean Years of Schooling Index (MYSI) = \frac{\textrm{MYS}}{15}[7]

Fifteen is the projected maximum of this indicator for 2025.

2.2 Expected Years of Schooling Index (EYSI) = \frac{\textrm{EYS}}{18}[8]

Eighteen is equivalent to achieving a master’s degree in most countries.

3. Income Index (II) = \frac{\ln(\textrm{GNIpc}) - \ln(100)}{\ln(75,000) - \ln(100)}

II is 1 when GNI per capita is $75,000 and 0 when GNI per capita is $100.

Finally, the HDI is the geometric mean of the previous three normalized indices:
\textrm{HDI} = \sqrt[3]{\textrm{LEI}\cdot \textrm{EI} \cdot \textrm{II}}.

LE: Life expectancy at birth
MYS: Mean years of schooling (Years that a person 25 years-of-age or older has spent in schools)
EYS: Expected years of schooling (Years that a 5-year-old child will spend in schools throughout his life)
GNIpc: Gross national income at purchasing power parity per capita
Old method (before 2010 Report)

The HDI combined three dimensions last used in its 2009 Report:

Life expectancy at birth, as an index of population health and longevity to HDI
Knowledge and education, as measured by the adult literacy rate (with two-thirds weighting) and the combined primary, secondary, and tertiary gross enrollment ratio (with one-third weighting).
Standard of living, as indicated by the natural logarithm of gross domestic product per capita at purchasing power parity.

HDI trends between 1975 and 2004
OECD
Europe not in the OECD and CIS
Latin America and the Caribbean
East Asia

Arab League
South Asia
Sub-Saharan Africa

This methodology was used by the UNDP until their 2011 report.

The formula defining the HDI is promulgated by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).[9] In general, to transform a raw variable, say x, into a unit-free index between 0 and 1 (which allows different indices to be added together), the following formula is used:

x\text{ index} = \frac{x - \min\left(x\right)}{\max\left(x\right)-\min\left(x\right)}

where \min\left(x\right) and \max\left(x\right) are the lowest and highest values the variable x can attain, respectively.

The Human Development Index (HDI) then represents the uniformly weighted sum with ⅓ contributed by each of the following factor indices:

Life Expectancy Index = \frac{LE - 25} {85-25}
Education Index = \frac{2} {3} \times ALI + \frac{1} {3} \times GEI
Adult Literacy Index (ALI) = \frac{ALR - 0} {100 - 0}
Gross Enrollment Index (GEI) = \frac{CGER - 0} {100 - 0}
GDP = \frac{\log\left(GDPpc\right) - \log\left(100\right)} {\log\left(40000\right) - \log\left(100\right)}

Other organizations/companies may include other factors, such as infant mortality, which produces a different HDI.
2015 report
Main article: List of countries by Human Development Index

The 2015 Human Development Report by the United Nations Development Program was released on December 14, 2015, and calculates HDI values based on estimates for 2014. Below is the list of the "very high human development" countries:[10]

Increase = increase.
Steady = steady.
Decrease = decrease.
The number in brackets represents the number of ranks the country has climbed (up or down) relative to the ranking in 2014 report.

Rank Country HDI
2015 estimates for 2014
[11] Change in rank from previous year[11] 2015 estimates for 2014
[11] Change from previous year
[11]
1 Steady Norway 0.944 Increase 0.002
2 Steady Australia 0.935 Increase 0.002
3 Steady Switzerland 0.930 Increase 0.002
4 Steady Denmark 0.923 Steady
5 Steady Netherlands 0.922 Increase 0.002
6 Steady Germany 0.916 Increase 0.001
6 Increase (2) Ireland 0.916 Increase 0.004
8 Decrease (1) United States 0.915 Increase 0.002
9 Decrease (1) Canada 0.913 Increase 0.001
9 Increase (1) New Zealand 0.913 Increase 0.002
11 Steady Singapore 0.912 Increase 0.003
12 Steady Hong Kong 0.910 Increase 0.002
13 Steady Liechtenstein 0.908 Increase 0.001
14 Steady Sweden 0.907 Increase 0.002
14 Increase (1) United Kingdom 0.907 Increase 0.005
16 Steady Iceland 0.899 Steady
17 Steady South Korea 0.898 Increase 0.003
18 Steady Israel 0.894 Increase 0.001
19 Steady Luxembourg 0.892 Increase 0.002
20 Decrease (1) Japan 0.891 Increase 0.001
21 Steady Belgium 0.890 Increase 0.002
22 Steady France 0.888 Increase 0.001
23 Steady Austria 0.885 Increase 0.001
24 Steady Finland 0.883 Increase 0.001
25 Steady Slovenia 0.880 Increase 0.001
26 Steady Spain 0.876 Increase 0.002
27 Steady Italy 0.873 Steady
28 Steady Czech Republic 0.870 Increase 0.002
29 Steady Greece 0.865 Increase 0.002
30 Steady Estonia 0.861 Increase 0.002
31 Steady Brunei 0.856 Increase 0.004
32 Steady Cyprus 0.850 Steady
32 Increase (1) Qatar 0.850 Increase 0.001
34 Steady Andorra 0.845 Increase 0.001
35 Increase (1) Slovakia 0.844 Increase 0.005
36 Decrease (1) Poland 0.843 Increase 0.003
37 Steady Lithuania 0.839 Increase 0.002
37 Steady Malta 0.839 Increase 0.002
39 Steady Saudi Arabia 0.837 Increase 0.001
40 Steady Argentina 0.836 Increase 0.003
41 Decrease (1) United Arab Emirates 0.835 Increase 0.002
42 Steady Chile 0.832 Increase 0.002
43 Steady Portugal 0.830 Increase 0.002
44 Steady Hungary 0.828 Increase 0.003
45 Steady Bahrain 0.824 Increase 0.003
46 Increase (1) Latvia 0.819 Increase 0.003
47 Decrease (1) Croatia 0.818 Increase 0.001
48 Decrease (1) Kuwait 0.816 Steady
49 Steady Montenegro 0.802 Increase 0.001
2014 report
Main article: List of countries by Human Development Index

The 2014 Human Development Report by the United Nations Development Program was released on July 24, 2014, and calculates HDI values based on estimates for 2013. Below is the list of the "very high human development" countries:[12]

Increase = increase.
Steady = steady.
Decrease = decrease.
The number in brackets represents the number of ranks the country has climbed (up or down) relative to the ranking in 2013 report.

Rank Country HDI
New 2014 estimates for 2013
[13] Change in rank between 2014 report and 2013 report[13] New 2014 estimates for 2013
[13] Change compared between 2014 report and 2013 report
[13]
1 Steady Norway 0.944 Decrease 0.011
2 Steady Australia 0.933 Increase 0.002
3 Steady Switzerland 0.917 Increase 0.001
4 Steady Netherlands 0.915 Steady
5 Steady United States 0.914 Increase 0.002
6 Steady Germany 0.911 Steady
7 Steady New Zealand 0.910 Increase 0.002
8 Steady Canada 0.902 Increase 0.001
9 Increase (3) Singapore 0.901 Increase 0.002
10 Steady Denmark 0.900 Steady
11 Decrease (3) Ireland 0.899 Decrease 0.017
12 Decrease (1) Sweden 0.898 Increase 0.001
13 Steady Iceland 0.895 Increase 0.002
14 Steady United Kingdom 0.892 Increase 0.002
15 Steady Hong Kong 0.891 Increase 0.002
15 Increase (1) South Korea 0.891 Increase 0.003
17 Decrease (1) Japan 0.890 Increase 0.002
18 Decrease (2) Liechtenstein 0.889 Increase 0.001
19 Steady Israel 0.888 Increase 0.002
20 Steady France 0.884 Steady
21 Steady Austria 0.881 Increase 0.001
21 Steady Belgium 0.881 Increase 0.001
21 Steady Luxembourg 0.881 Increase 0.001
24 Steady Finland 0.879 Steady
25 Steady Slovenia 0.874 Steady
26 Steady Italy 0.872 Steady
27 Steady Spain 0.869 Steady
28 Steady Czech Republic 0.861 Steady
29 Steady Greece 0.853 Decrease 0.001
30 Steady Brunei 0.852 Steady
31 Steady Qatar 0.851 Increase 0.001
32 Steady Cyprus 0.845 Decrease 0.003
33 Steady Estonia 0.840 Increase 0.001
34 Steady Saudi Arabia 0.836 Increase 0.003
35 Increase (1) Lithuania 0.834 Increase 0.003
35 Decrease (1) Poland 0.834 Increase 0.001
37 Steady Andorra 0.830 Steady
37 Increase (1) Slovakia 0.830 Increase 0.001
39 Steady Malta 0.829 Increase 0.002
40 Steady United Arab Emirates 0.827 Increase 0.002
41 Increase (1) Chile 0.822 Increase 0.003
41 Steady Portugal 0.822 Steady
43 Steady Hungary 0.818 Increase 0.001
44 Steady Bahrain 0.815 Increase 0.002
45 Steady Cuba 0.815 Increase 0.002
46 Decrease (2) Kuwait 0.814 Increase 0.001
47 Steady Croatia 0.812 Steady
48 Steady Latvia 0.810 Increase 0.002
49 Steady Argentina 0.808 Increase 0.002
Inequality-adjusted HDI
Main article: List of countries by inequality-adjusted HDI

The Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI)[12] is a "measure of the average level of human development of people in a society once inequality is taken into account."

Note: The green arrows (Increase), red arrows (Decrease), and blue dashes (Steady) represent changes in rank. The changes in rank are not relative to the HDI list above, but are according to the source (p. 168) calculated with the exclusion of countries which are missing IHDI data.

Norway 0.891 (Steady)
Australia 0.860 (Steady)
Netherlands 0.854 (Increase 1)
Switzerland 0.847 (Increase 3)
Germany 0.846 (Steady)
Iceland 0.843 (Increase 2)
Sweden 0.840 (Decrease 4)
Denmark 0.838 (Increase 1)
Canada 0.833 (Increase 4)
Ireland 0.832 (Decrease 4)
Finland 0.830 (Steady)
Slovenia 0.824 (Decrease 2)
Austria 0.818 (Decrease 1)
Luxembourg 0.814 (Increase 3)
Czech Republic 0.813 (Decrease 1)
United Kingdom 0.812 (Increase 3)
Belgium 0.806 (Decrease 2)
France 0.804 (Steady)
Israel 0.793 (Increase 1)
Japan 0.779 (New)
Slovakia 0.778 (Increase 1)
Spain 0.775 (Decrease 2)
Italy 0.768 (Increase 1)
Estonia 0.767 (Increase 1)
Greece 0.762 (Increase 2)
Malta 0.760 (Decrease 3)
Hungary 0.757 (Decrease 1)
United States 0.755 (Decrease 12)
Poland 0.751 (Increase 1)
Cyprus 0.752 (Decrease 1)
Lithuania 0.746 (Increase 2)
Portugal 0.739 (Steady)
South Korea 0.736 (Decrease 5)
Latvia 0.725 (Increase 1)
Croatia 0.721 (Increase 4)
Argentina 0.680 (Increase 7)
Chile 0.661 (Increase 4)

Countries in the top quartile of HDI ("very high human development" group) with a missing IHDI: New Zealand, Singapore, Hong Kong, Liechtenstein, Brunei, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Andorra, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Cuba, and Kuwait.
Countries not included

Some countries were not included for various reasons, primarily due to the lack of necessary data. The following United Nations Member States were not included in the 2014 report:[12] North Korea, Marshall Islands, Monaco, Nauru, San Marino, Somalia, India, Pakistan, South Sudan, and Tuvalu.
2013 report
Main article: List of countries by Human Development Index

The 2013 Human Development Report by the United Nations Development Program was released on March 14, 2013, and calculates HDI values based on estimates for 2012. Below is the list of the "very high human development" countries:[14]

Note: The green arrows (Increase), red arrows (Decrease), and blue dashes (Steady) represent changes in rank when compared to the new 2012 data HDI for 2011 – published in the 2012 report.

Norway 0.955 (Steady)
Australia 0.938 (Steady)
United States 0.937 (Increase 1)
Netherlands 0.921 (Decrease 1)
Germany 0.920 (Increase 4)
New Zealand 0.919 (Decrease 1)
Ireland 0.916 (Steady)
Sweden 0.916 (Increase 3)
Switzerland 0.913 (Increase 2)
Japan 0.912 (Increase 2)
Canada 0.911 (Decrease 5)
South Korea 0.909 (Increase 3)
Hong Kong 0.906 (Steady)
Iceland 0.906 (Steady)
Denmark 0.901 (Increase 1)
Israel 0.900 (Increase 1)
Belgium 0.897 (Increase 1)
Austria 0.895 (Increase 1)
Singapore 0.895 (Increase 7)
France 0.893 (Steady)
Finland 0.892 (Increase 1)
Slovenia 0.892 (Decrease 1)
Spain 0.885 (Steady)
Liechtenstein 0.883 (Decrease 16)
Italy 0.881 (Decrease 1)
Luxembourg 0.875 (Decrease 1)
United Kingdom 0.875 (Increase 1)
Czech Republic 0.873 (Decrease 1)
Greece 0.860 (Steady)
Brunei 0.855 (Increase 1)
Cyprus 0.848 (Decrease 1)
Malta 0.847 (Increase 4)
Estonia 0.846 (Steady)
Andorra 0.846 (Decrease 1)
Slovakia 0.840 (Steady)
Qatar 0.834 (Increase 1)
Hungary 0.831 (Increase 1)
Barbados 0.825 (Increase 9)
Poland 0.821 (Steady)
Chile 0.819 (Increase 4)
Lithuania 0.818 (Decrease 1)
United Arab Emirates 0.818 (Decrease 12)
Portugal 0.816 (Decrease 2)
Latvia 0.814 (Decrease 1)
Argentina 0.811 (Steady)
Seychelles 0.806 (Increase 6)
Croatia 0.805 (Decrease 1)

Inequality-adjusted HDI
Main article: List of countries by inequality-adjusted HDI

The Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI)[14] is a "measure of the average level of human development of people in a society once inequality is taken into account."

Note: The green arrows (Increase), red arrows (Decrease), and blue dashes (Steady) represent changes in rank. The changes in rank are not relative to the HDI list above, but are according to the source (p. 152) calculated with the exclusion of countries which are missing IHDI data.

Norway 0.894 (Steady)
Australia 0.864 (Steady)
Sweden 0.859 (Increase 3)
Netherlands 0.857 (Steady)
Germany 0.856 (Steady)
Ireland 0.850 (Steady)
Switzerland 0.849 (Increase 1)
Iceland 0.848 (Increase 3)
Denmark 0.845 (Increase 3)
Slovenia 0.840 (Increase 7)
Finland 0.839 (Increase 6)
Austria 0.837 (Increase 3)
Canada 0.832 (Decrease 4)
Czech Republic 0.826 (Increase 9)
Belgium 0.825 (Decrease 1)
United States 0.821 (Decrease 13)
Luxembourg 0.813 (Increase 4)
France 0.812 (Decrease 2)
United Kingdom 0.802 (Increase 2)
Spain 0.796 (Decrease 1)
Israel 0.790 (Decrease 8)
Slovakia 0.788 (Increase 6)
Malta 0.778 (Increase 3)
Italy 0.776 (Decrease 4)
Estonia 0.770 (Increase 2)
Hungary 0.769 (Increase 3)
Greece 0.760 (Decrease 3)
South Korea 0.758 (Decrease 18)
Cyprus 0.751 (Decrease 4)
Poland 0.740 (Steady)
Montenegro 0.733 (Increase 8)
Portugal 0.729 (Increase 1)
Lithuania 0.727 (Decrease 1)
Belarus 0.727 (Increase 3)
Latvia 0.726 (Decrease 1)
Bulgaria 0.704 (Increase 5)

Countries in the top quartile of HDI ("very high human development" group) with a missing IHDI: New Zealand, Chile, Japan, Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan, Liechtenstein, Brunei, Andorra, Qatar, Barbados, United Arab Emirates, and Seychelles.
2011 report

The 2011 Human Development Report was released on 2 November 2011, and calculated HDI values based on estimates for 2011. Below is the list of the "very high human development" countries (equal to the top quartile):[15]

Note: The green arrows (Increase), red arrows (Decrease), and blue dashes (Steady) represent changes in rank when compared to the 2011 HDI data for 2010 – published in the 2011 report (p. 131).

Norway 0.943 (Steady)
Australia 0.929 (Steady)
Netherlands 0.910 (Steady)
United States 0.910 (Steady)
New Zealand 0.908 (Steady)
Canada 0.908 (Steady)
Ireland 0.908 (Steady)
Liechtenstein 0.905 (Steady)
Germany 0.905 (Steady)
Sweden 0.904 (Steady)
Switzerland 0.903 (Steady)
Japan 0.901 (Steady)
Hong Kong 0.898 (Increase 1)
Iceland 0.898 (Decrease 1)
South Korea 0.897 (Steady)
Denmark 0.895 (Steady)
Israel 0.888 (Steady)
Belgium 0.886 (Steady)
Austria 0.885 (Steady)
France 0.884 (Steady)
Slovenia 0.884 (Steady)
Finland 0.882 (Steady)
Spain 0.878 (Steady)
Italy 0.874 (Steady)
Luxembourg 0.867 (Steady)
Singapore 0.866 (Steady)
Czech Republic 0.865 (Steady)
United Kingdom 0.863 (Steady)
Greece 0.861 (Steady)
United Arab Emirates 0.846 (Steady)
Cyprus 0.840 (Steady)
Andorra 0.838 (Steady)
Brunei 0.838 (Steady)
Estonia 0.835 (Steady)
Slovakia 0.834 (Steady)
Malta 0.832 (Steady)
Qatar 0.831 (Steady)
Hungary 0.816 (Steady)
Poland 0.813 (Steady)
Lithuania 0.810 (Increase 1)
Portugal 0.809 (Decrease 1)
Bahrain 0.806 (Steady)
Latvia 0.805 (Steady)
Chile 0.805 (Steady)
Argentina 0.797 (Increase 1)
Croatia 0.796 (Decrease 1)
Barbados 0.793 (Steady)

Inequality-adjusted HDI
Main article: List of countries by inequality-adjusted HDI

Below is a list of countries in the top quartile by Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI).[16] According to the report, the IHDI is a "measure of the average level of human development of people in a society once inequality is taken into account."

Note: The green arrows (Increase), red arrows (Decrease), and blue dashes (Steady) represent changes in rank when compared to the 2011 HDI list, for countries listed in both rankings.

Norway 0.890 (Steady)
Australia 0.856 (Steady)
Sweden 0.851 (Increase 5)
Netherlands 0.846 (Decrease 1)
Iceland 0.845 (Increase 5)
Ireland 0.843 (Steady)
Germany 0.842 (Increase 1)
Denmark 0.842 (Increase 4)
Switzerland 0.840 (Steady)
Slovenia 0.837 (Increase 7)
Finland 0.833 (Increase 7)
Canada 0.829 (Decrease 7)
Czech Republic 0.821 (Increase 9)
Austria 0.820 (Increase 1)
Belgium 0.819 (Decrease 1)
France 0.804 (Steady)
Spain 0.799 (Decrease 2)
Luxembourg 0.799 (Increase 3)
United Kingdom 0.791 (Increase 4)
Slovakia 0.787 (Increase 7)
Israel 0.779 (Decrease 8)
Italy 0.779 (Decrease 2)
United States 0.771 (Decrease 19)
Estonia 0.769 (Increase 2)
Hungary 0.759 (Increase 3)
Greece 0.756 (Decrease 2)
Cyprus 0.755 (Decrease 2)
South Korea 0.749 (Decrease 17)
Poland 0.734 (Steady)
Lithuania 0.730 (Steady)
Portugal 0.726 (Steady)
Montenegro 0.718 (Increase 7)
Latvia 0.717 (Decrease 1)
Serbia 0.694 (Increase 9)
Belarus 0.693 (Increase 10)

Countries in the top quartile of HDI ("very high human development" group) with a missing IHDI include: New Zealand, Liechtenstein, Japan, Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan, United Arab Emirates, Andorra, Brunei, Malta, Qatar, Bahrain, Chile, Argentina and Barbados.
Countries not included

Some countries were not included for various reasons, mainly the unavailability of certain crucial data. The following United Nations Member States were not included in the 2011 report:[17] North Korea, Marshall Islands, Monaco, Nauru, San Marino, South Sudan, Somalia and Tuvalu.
2010 report

The 2010 Human Development Report by the United Nations Development Program was released on November 4, 2010, and calculates HDI values based on estimates for 2010. Below is the list of the "very high human development" countries:[18]

Note: The green arrows (Increase), red arrows (Decrease), and blue dashes (Steady) represent changes in rank when compared to the 2009 HDI published in the 2010 report.

Norway 0.938 (Steady)
Australia 0.937 (Steady)
New Zealand 0.907 (Steady)
United States 0.902 (Steady)
Ireland 0.895 (Steady)
Liechtenstein 0.891 (Steady)
Netherlands 0.890 (Steady)
Canada 0.888 (Steady)
Sweden 0.885 (Steady)
Germany 0.885 (Increase 12)
Japan 0.884 (Steady)
South Korea 0.877 (Steady)
Switzerland 0.874 (Steady)
France 0.872 (Increase 2)
Israel 0.872 (Decrease 1)
Finland 0.871 (Decrease 1)
Iceland 0.869 (Steady)
Belgium 0.867 (Steady)
Denmark 0.866 (Steady)
Spain 0.863 (Steady)
Hong Kong 0.862 (Steady)
Greece 0.855 (Steady)
Italy 0.854 (Steady)
Luxembourg 0.852 (Steady)
Austria 0.851 (Steady)
United Kingdom 0.849 (Steady)
Singapore 0.846 (Steady)
Czech Republic 0.841 (Steady)
Slovenia 0.828 (Steady)
Andorra 0.824 (Steady)
Slovakia 0.818 (Steady)
United Arab Emirates 0.815 (Increase 1)
Malta 0.815 (Decrease 1)
Estonia 0.812 (Steady)
Cyprus 0.810 (Steady)
Hungary 0.805 (Increase 1)
Brunei 0.805 (Decrease 1)
Qatar 0.803 (Steady)
Bahrain 0.801 (Steady)
Portugal 0.795 (Decrease 6)
Poland 0.795 (Steady)
Barbados 0.788 (Decrease 5)

Inequality-adjusted HDI

The 2010 Human Development Report was the first to calculate an Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI), which factors in inequalities in the three basic dimensions of human development (income, life expectancy, and education). Below is a list of countries in the top quartile by IHDI:[19]

Note: The green arrows (Increase), red arrows (Decrease), and blue dashes (Steady) represent changes in rank when compared to the 2010 HDI list, for countries listed in both rankings.

Norway 0.876 (Steady)
Australia 0.864 (Steady)
Sweden 0.824 (Increase 4)
Netherlands 0.818 (Increase 1)
Germany 0.814 (Increase 3)
Switzerland 0.813 (Increase 4)
Ireland 0.813 (Decrease 3)
Canada 0.812 (Decrease 2)
Iceland 0.811 (Increase 5)
Denmark 0.810 (Increase 6)
Finland 0.806 (Increase 2)
United States 0.799 (Decrease 9)
Belgium 0.794 (Increase 2)
France 0.792 (Decrease 3)
Czech Republic 0.790 (Increase 8)
Austria 0.787 (Increase 5)
Spain 0.779 (Steady)
Luxembourg 0.775 (Increase 2)
Slovenia 0.771 (Increase 5)
Greece 0.768 (Decrease 2)
United Kingdom 0.766 (Increase 1)
Slovakia 0.764 (Increase 3)
Israel 0.763 (Decrease 11)
Italy 0.752 (Decrease 5)
Hungary 0.736 (Increase 3)
Estonia 0.733 (Steady)
South Korea 0.731 (Decrease 18)
Cyprus 0.716 (Decrease 1)
Poland 0.709 (Increase 1)
Portugal 0.700 (Decrease 1)
Lithuania 0.693 (Increase 1)
Montenegro 0.693 (Increase 4)[20]
Latvia 0.684 (Increase 2)
Romania 0.675 (Increase 3)
The Bahamas 0.671 (Decrease 4)

Countries in the top quartile of HDI ("very high human development" group) with a missing IHDI include: New Zealand, Liechtenstein, Japan, Hong Kong, Singapore, Republic of China (Taiwan), Andorra, United Arab Emirates, Malta, Brunei, Qatar, Bahrain and Barbados.
Countries not included

Some countries were not included for various reasons, mainly the unavailability of certain crucial data. The following United Nations Member States were not included in the 2010 report.[17] Cuba lodged a formal protest at its lack of inclusion. The UNDP explained that Cuba had been excluded due to the lack of an "internationally reported figure for Cuba’s Gross National Income adjusted for Purchasing Power Parity". All other indicators for Cuba were available, and reported by the UNDP, but the lack of one indicator meant that no ranking could be attributed to the country.[21][22] The situation has been addressed and, in later years, Cuba has ranked as a High Human Development country.

Africa

Eritrea
Seychelles
Somalia



Americas

Antigua and Barbuda
Cuba
Dominica
Grenada
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Lucia
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines



Asia

Bhutan
Iraq
North Korea
Oman
Lebanon



Europe

Monaco
San Marino
Vatican City



Oceania

Kiribati
Marshall Islands
Nauru
Palau
Samoa
Tuvalu
Vanuatu

2009 report

The 2009 Human Development Report by UNDP was released on October 5, 2009, and covers the period up to 2007. It was titled "Overcoming barriers: Human mobility and development". The top countries by HDI were grouped in a new category called "very high human development". The report refers to these countries as developed countries. They are:[23]

Norway 0.971 (Steady 0)
Australia 0.970 (Increase 2)
Iceland 0.969 (Decrease 1)
Canada 0.966 (Decrease 1)
Ireland 0.965 (Steady)
Netherlands 0.964 (Steady)
Sweden 0.963 (Steady)
France 0.961 (Increase 3)
Switzerland 0.960 (Increase 1)
Japan 0.960 (Decrease 2)
Luxembourg 0.960 (Decrease 2)
Finland 0.959 (Steady)
United States 0.956 (Increase 2)
Austria 0.955 (Steady)
Spain 0.955 (Increase 1)
Denmark 0.955 (Decrease 2)
Belgium 0.953 (Steady)
Italy 0.951 (Increase 1)
Liechtenstein 0.951 (Decrease 1)
New Zealand 0.950 (Steady)
United Kingdom 0.947 (Steady)
Germany 0.947 (Steady)
Singapore 0.944 (Increase 1)
Hong Kong 0.944 (Decrease 1)
Greece 0.942 (Steady)
South Korea 0.937 (Steady)
Israel 0.935 (Increase 1)
Andorra 0.934 (Decrease 1)
Slovenia 0.929 (Steady)
Brunei 0.920 (Steady)
Kuwait 0.916 (Steady)
Cyprus 0.914 (Steady)
Qatar 0.910 (Increase 1)
Portugal 0.909 (Decrease 1)
United Arab Emirates 0.903 (Increase 2)
Czech Republic 0.903 (Steady)
Barbados 0.903 (Increase 2)
Malta 0.902 (Decrease 3)

Countries not included

Some countries were not included for various reasons, such as being a non-UN member or unable or unwilling to provide the necessary data at the time of publication. Besides the states with limited recognition, the following states were also not included.

Africa

Somalia
Zimbabwe



Asia

Iraq
North Korea



Europe

Monaco
San Marino
Vatican City



Oceania

Kiribati
Marshall Islands
Federated States of Micronesia
Nauru
Palau
Tuvalu

2008 statistical update

A new index was released on December 18, 2008. This so-called "statistical update" covered the period up to 2006 and was published without an accompanying Human Development Report. The update is relevant due to newly released estimates of purchasing power parities (PPP), implying substantial adjustments for many countries, resulting in changes in HDI values and, in many cases, HDI ranks.[24]

Iceland 0.968 (Steady)
Norway 0.968 (Steady)
Canada 0.967 (Increase 1)
Australia 0.965 (Decrease 1)
Ireland 0.960 (Steady)
Netherlands 0.958 (Increase 3)
Sweden 0.958 (Decrease 1)
Japan 0.956 (Steady)
Luxembourg 0.956 (Increase 9)
Switzerland 0.955 (Decrease 3)
France 0.955 (Decrease 1)
Finland 0.954 (Decrease 1)
Denmark 0.952 (Increase 1)
Austria 0.951 (Increase 1)
United States 0.950 (Decrease 3)
Spain 0.949 (Decrease 3)
Belgium 0.948 (Decrease 1)
Greece 0.947 (Increase 6)
Italy 0.945 (Increase 1)
New Zealand 0.944 (Decrease 1)
United Kingdom 0.942 (Decrease 4)
Hong Kong 0.942 (Decrease 1)
Germany 0.940 (Decrease 1)
Israel 0.930 (Decrease 1)
South Korea 0.928 (Increase 1)
Slovenia 0.923 (Increase 1)
Brunei 0.919 (Increase 3)
Singapore 0.918 (Decrease 3)
Kuwait 0.912 (Increase 4)
Cyprus 0.912 (Decrease 2)
United Arab Emirates 0.903 (Increase 8)
Bahrain 0.902 (Increase 9)[25]
Portugal 0.900 (Decrease 4)

Countries not included

Some countries were not included for various reasons, such as being a non-UN member, unable, or unwilling to provide the necessary data at the time of publication. Besides the states with limited recognition, the following states were also not included.[26]

Africa

Somalia
Zimbabwe



Asia

Afghanistan
Iraq
North Korea



Europe

Andorra
Liechtenstein
Monaco
San Marino
Vatican City



Oceania

Kiribati
Marshall Islands
Federated States of Micronesia
Nauru
Palau
Tuvalu

2007/2008 report

The Human Development Report for 2007/2008 was launched in Brasília, Brazil, on November 27, 2007. Its focus was on "Fighting climate change: Human solidarity in a divided world."[27] Most of the data used for the report are derived largely from 2005 or earlier, thus indicating an HDI for 2005. Not all UN member states choose to or are able to provide the necessary statistics.

The report showed a small increase in world HDI in comparison with last year's report. This rise was fueled by a general improvement in the developing world, especially of the least developed countries group. This marked improvement at the bottom was offset with a decrease in HDI of high income countries.

A HDI below 0.5 is considered to represent "low development". All 22 countries in that category are located in Africa. The highest-scoring Sub-Saharan countries, Gabon and South Africa, are ranked 119th and 121st, respectively. Nine countries departed from this category this year and joined the "medium development" group.

A HDI of 0.8 or more is considered to represent "high development". This includes all developed countries, such as those in North America, Western Europe, Oceania, and Eastern Asia, as well as some developing countries in Eastern Europe, Central and South America, Southeast Asia, the Caribbean, and the oil-rich Arabian Peninsula. Seven countries were promoted to this category this year, leaving the "medium development" group: Albania, Belarus, Brazil, Libya, Macedonia, Russia and Saudi Arabia.

On the following table, green arrows (Increase) represent an increase in ranking over the previous study, while red arrows (Decrease) represent a decrease in ranking. They are followed by the number of spaces they moved. Blue dashes (Steady) represent a nation that did not move in the rankings since the previous study.

Iceland 0.968 (Increase 1)
Norway 0.968 (Decrease 1)
Australia 0.962 (Steady)
Canada 0.961 (Increase 2)
Ireland 0.959 (Decrease 1)
Sweden 0.956 (Decrease 1)
Switzerland 0.955 (Increase 2)
Japan 0.953 (Decrease 1)
Netherlands 0.953 (Increase 1)
France 0.952 (Increase 6)
Finland 0.952 (Steady)
United States 0.951 (Decrease 4)
Spain 0.949 (Increase 6)
Denmark 0.949 (Increase 1)
Austria 0.948 (Decrease 1)
Belgium 0.946 (Decrease 4)
United Kingdom 0.946 (Increase 1)
Luxembourg 0.944 (Decrease 6)
New Zealand 0.943 (Increase 1)
Italy 0.941 (Decrease 3)
Hong Kong 0.937 (Increase 1)
Germany 0.935 (Increase 1)
Israel 0.932 (Steady)
Greece 0.926 (Steady)
Singapore 0.922 (Steady)
South Korea 0.921 (Steady)
Slovenia 0.917 (Steady)
Cyprus 0.903 (Increase 1)
Portugal 0.897 (Decrease 1)
Brunei 0.894 (Increase 4)[28]

Past top countries

The list below displays the top-ranked country from each year of the Human Development Index. Norway has been ranked the highest twelve times, Canada eight times, followed by Japan which has been ranked highest three times. Iceland has been ranked highest twice.
In each original report

The year represents when the report was published. In parentheses is the year for which the index was calculated.

2015 (2014): Norway
2014 (2013): Norway
2013 (2012): Norway
2011 (2011): Norway
2010 (2010): Norway
2009 (2007): Norway
2008 (2006): Iceland
2007 (2005): Iceland
2006 (2004): Norway
2005 (2003): Norway
2004 (2002): Norway
2003 (2001): Norway
2002 (2000): Norway
2001 (1999): Norway
2000 (1998): Canada
1999 (1997): Canada
1998 (1995): Canada
1997 (1994): Canada
1996 (1993): Canada
1995 (1992): Canada
1994 (????): Canada
1993 (????): Japan
1992 (1990): Canada
1991 (1990): Japan
1990 (????): Japan

Criticism
HDI vs. ecological footprint

The Human Development Index has been criticized on a number of grounds including alleged ideological biases towards egalitarianism and so-called "Western models of development", failure to include any ecological considerations, lack of consideration of technological development or contributions to the human civilization, focusing exclusively on national performance and ranking, lack of attention to development from a global perspective, measurement error of the underlying statistics, and on the UNDP's changes in formula which can lead to severe misclassification in the categorisation of 'low', 'medium', 'high' or 'very high' human development countries.[29]
See also: Environmental full-cost accounting, Overconsumption and Ecological Debt Day

Economists Hendrik Wolff, Howard Chong and Maximilian Auffhammer discuss the HDI from the perspective of data error in the underlying health, education and income statistics used to construct the HDI.[29] They identified three sources of data error which are due to (i) data updating, (ii) formula revisions and (iii) thresholds to classify a country’s development status and conclude that 11%, 21% and 34% of all countries can be interpreted as currently misclassified in the development bins due to the three sources of data error, respectively. The authors suggest that the United Nations should discontinue the practice of classifying countries into development bins because - they claim - the cut-off values seem arbitrary, can provide incentives for strategic behavior in reporting official statistics, and have the potential to misguide politicians, investors, charity donors and the public who use the HDI at large.[citation needed] In 2010 the UNDP reacted to the criticism and updated the thresholds to classify nations as low, medium, and high human development countries. In a comment to The Economist in early January 2011, the Human Development Report Office responded[30] to a January 6, 2011 article in the magazine[31] which discusses the Wolff et al. paper. The Human Development Report Office states that they undertook a systematic revision of the methods used for the calculation of the HDI and that the new methodology directly addresses the critique by Wolff et al. in that it generates a system for continuous updating of the human development categories whenever formula or data revisions take place.
Geographical coverage

The HDI has extended its geographical coverage: David Hastings, of the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, published a report geographically extending the HDI to 230+ economies, whereas the UNDP HDI for 2009 enumerates 182 economies and coverage for the 2010 HDI dropped to 169 countries.[32][33]
Country/region specific HDI lists

African countries
Argentine provinces
Australian states and territories
Brazilian states
Chilean regions
Chinese administrative divisions
European countries
Indian states
Indonesian provinces
Latin American countries
Mexican states
Pakistani districts
Philippine provinces
Russian federal subjects
South African provinces
U.S. states (American Human Development Report)
Venezuelan states

See also
Portal icon Sustainable development portal

Indices

List of countries by Human Development Index
Bhutan GNH Index
Broad measures of economic progress
Disability-adjusted life year
Full cost accounting
Green national product
Green gross domestic product (Green GDP)
Gender-related Development Index
Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI)
Global Peace Index
Gross National Happiness
Gross National Well-being (GNW)
Happiness economics
Happy Planet Index (HPI)
Human Development Index (HDI)
ISEW (Index of sustainable economic welfare)
Legatum Prosperity Index
Leisure satisfaction
Least developed country
Living planet index
Law of Social Cycle
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
Money-rich, time-poor
OECD Better Life Index BLI
Social Progress Index
Subjective life satisfaction
Where-to-be-born Index
Wikiprogress
World Happiness Report (WHR)
World Values Survey (WVS)

Other

Economics
Democracy Ranking
Demographic economics
Economic development
Ethics of care
Human Development and Capability Association
Human Poverty Index
Progress (history)
Progressive utilization theory
Post-materialism
Psychometrics
International Association for Feminist Economics
International development
Right to an adequate standard of living
Sustainable development
System of National Accounts
Welfare economics

Notes and references

"The Human Development concept". UNDP. Retrieved 7 April 2012.
"United Nations Development Programme". Undp.org. 2013-05-26. Retrieved 2013-05-30.
Fukuda-Parr, Sakiko (2003). "The Human Development Paradigm: operationalizing Sen’s ideas on capabilities". Feminist Economics 9 (2–3): 301–317. doi:10.1080/1354570022000077980.
United Nations Development Programme (1999). Human Development Report 1999. New York: Oxford University Press.
"Human Development Report 2010". UNDP. 4 November 2010.
"Technical notes" (PDF). UNDP. 2013.
Mean years of schooling (of adults) (years) is a calculation of the average number of years of education received by people ages 25 and older in their lifetime based on education attainment levels of the population converted into years of schooling based on theoretical duration of each level of education attended. Source: Barro, R. J.; Lee, J.-W. (2010). "A New Data Set of Educational Attainment in the World, 1950–2010". NBER Working Paper No. 15902.
(ESYI is a calculation of the number of years a child is expected to attend school, or university, including the years spent on repetition. It is the sum of the age-specific enrollment ratios for primary, secondary, post-secondary non-tertiary and tertiary education and is calculated assuming the prevailing patterns of age-specific enrollment rates were to stay the same throughout the child’s life. Expected years of schooling is capped at 18 years. (Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics (2010). Correspondence on education indicators. March. Montreal.)
Definition, Calculator, etc. at UNDP site Archived December 20, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/..._annex.pdf
"Human Development Report 2015 – "Sustaining Human Progress: Reducing Vulnerabilities and Building Resilience"" (PDF). HDRO (Human Development Report Office) United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 14 December 2015.
http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/...t-en-1.pdf
"Human Development Report 2014 – "Sustaining Human Progress: Reducing Vulnerabilities and Building Resilience"". HDRO (Human Development Report Office) United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 25 July 2014.
http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/...mplete.pdf
"2011 Human Development Index" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-05-30.
"2011 Human Development Complete Report" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-05-30.
International Human Rights Development Indicators, UNDP
"2010 Human Development Index trends, 1980–2010" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-05-30.
"2010 Human Development Complete Report" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-05-30.
"Human Development Report 2010" (PDF). UNDP. pp. 152–155. Retrieved 2014-08-03.
"Samoa left out of UNDP index", Samoa Observer, January 22, 2010
Cuba country profile, UNDP
"Human Development Report 2009" (PDF). UNDP. pp. 167–174. Retrieved 2014-08-03.
"News – Human Development Reports (UNDP)". Hdr.undp.org. 2008-12-18. Retrieved 2013-05-30.
"Human Development Indices: A statistical update 2008". UNDP. p. 29. Retrieved 2014-08-03.
"Human Development Indices: A statistical update 2008". UNDP. p. 32. Retrieved 2014-08-03.
"Human Development Report 2007/2008" (PDF). UNDP. Retrieved 2014-08-03.
"Human Development Report 2007/2008" (PDF). UNDP. p. 229. Retrieved 2014-08-03.
Wolff, Hendrik; Chong, Howard; Auffhammer, Maximilian (2011). "Classification, Detection and Consequences of Data Error: Evidence from the Human Development Index". Economic Journal 121 (553): 843–870. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0297.2010.02408.x.
"UNDP Human Development Report Office's comments". The Economist. January 2011.[dead link]
"The Economist (pages 60–61 in the issue of Jan 8, 2011)". January 6, 2011.
Hastings, David A. (2009). "Filling Gaps in the Human Development Index". United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Working Paper WP/09/02.

Hastings, David A. (2011). "A "Classic" Human Development Index with 232 Countries". HumanSecurityIndex.org. Information Note linked to data

External links
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Human Development Index.

Human Development Report
2010 Human Development Index Update
Human Development Interactive Map
Human Development Tools and Rankings
Technical note explaining the definition of the HDI PDF (5.54 MB)
An independent HDI covering 232 countries, formulated along lines of the traditional (pre-2010) approach.
List of countries by HDI at NationMaster.com
America Is # ... 15? by Dalton Conley, The Nation, March 4, 2009
Human Development Index (HDI) by countries at world-statistics.org

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F-theory
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (October 2011)
String theory
Calabi yau formatted.svg
Fundamental objects

String Brane D-brane

Perturbative theory

Bosonic Superstring Type I Type II (IIA / IIB) Heterotic (SO(32) · E8×E8)

Non-perturbative results

S-duality T-duality M-theory AdS/CFT correspondence

Phenomenology

Phenomenology Cosmology Landscape

Mathematics

Mirror symmetry Monstrous moonshine

Related concepts
[show]
Theorists
[show]

History Glossary

v t e

F-theory is a branch of string theory developed by Cumrun Vafa.[1] The new vacua described by F-theory were discovered by Vafa and allowed string theorists to construct new realistic vacua — in the form of F-theory compactified on elliptically fibered Calabi–Yau four-folds. The letter "F" supposedly stands for "Father".[2]

Contents

1 Compactifications
2 Phenomenology
3 Extra time dimensions
4 See also
5 References

Compactifications

F-theory is formally a 12-dimensional theory, but the only way to obtain an acceptable background is to compactify this theory on a two-torus. By doing so, one obtains type IIB superstring theory in 10 dimensions. The SL(2,Z) S-duality symmetry of the resulting type IIB string theory is manifest because it arises as the group of large diffeomorphisms of the two-dimensional torus.

More generally, one can compactify F-theory on an elliptically fibered manifold (elliptic fibration), i.e. a fiber bundle whose fiber is a two-dimensional torus (also called an elliptic curve). For example, a subclass of the K3 manifolds is elliptically fibered, and F-theory on a K3 manifold is dual to heterotic string theory on a two-torus. Also, the modules of those theories should be equal.

The well-known large number of semirealistic solutions to string theory referred to as the string theory landscape, with 10^{500} elements or so, is dominated by F-theory compactifications on Calabi–Yau four-folds.
Phenomenology

New models of unification of the fundamental forces have recently been developed using F-theory.[3]
Extra time dimensions

F-theory, as it has metric signature (11,1), as needed for the Euclidean interpretation of the compactification spaces (e.g. the four-folds), is not a "two-time" theory of physics.

However, the signature of the two additional dimensions is somewhat ambiguous due to their infinitesimal character. For example, the supersymmetry of F-theory on a flat background corresponds to type IIB (i.e. (2,0)) supersymmetry with 32 real supercharges which may be interpreted as the dimensional reduction of the chiral real 12-dimensional supersymmetry if its spacetime signature is (10,2). In (11,1) dimensions, the minimum number of components would be 64.We can have an superfield C that replaces the Ramond-Ramond and the R-R which, by decomposition over bundles on CY4, gives intermediate Jacobians and Arthur-Mazor groups.
See also

Dilaton
Axion

References

Cumrun Vafa. "Evidence for F-theory." Nucl.Phys. B469: 403-418,1996 DOI:10.1016/0550-3213(96)00172-1. arXiv: hep-th/9602022
Michio Kaku: The Universe Is a Symphony of Vibrating Strings - YouTube

[1001.0577] Particle Physics Implications of F-theory


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